Management or managing is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees or of volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization - individually: managers.
] been a movement for evidence-based management.
Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure:
In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.
Views on the definition and scope of management include:
Management involves identifying the mission, objective, procedures, rules and manipulation of the ] This implies effective ] As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism machine or automated program, not the herding of animals, and can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment. From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen solely from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function in improving one's ] Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or through independent pursuit. Plans, measurements, motivational psychological tools, goals, and economic measures profit, etc. may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting ] This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, ] considers management to consist of five functions:
In another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett 1868–1933, allegedly defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She described management as philosophy.
Critics, however, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management without ] and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class.
One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "] Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools". Some such institutions such as the Harvard Business School use that name, while others such as the Yale School of Management employ the broader term "management".
English-speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use of the term often contrasted with the term "labor" – referring to those being managed.
But in the present era the concept of management is identified in the wide areas and its frontiers have been pushed to a broader range. Apart from profitable organizations even non-profitable organizations ]. Management on the whole is the process of planning, organizing, coordinating, leading and controlling.
In profitable organizations, management's primary function is the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit for the shareholders, creating valued products at a reasonable cost for customers, and providing great employment opportunities for employees. In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management and governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods such as employee-voting models of selecting or reviewing managers, but this is rare.
Some see management as a late-modern in the sense of late tools for management assessment, planning and control.
With the changing workplaces of industrial revolutions in the 18th and 19th centuries, military theory and practice contributed approaches to managing the newly-popular factories.
Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, a distinction between owners individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders and day-to-day managers independent specialists in planning and control gradually became more common.
The English verb "manage" comes from the Italian maneggiare to handle, especially tools or a horse, which derives from the two Latin words manus hand and agere to act. The French word for housekeeping, ménagerie, derived from ménager "to keep house"; compare ménage for "household", also encompasses taking care of domestic animals. is the French translation of Xenophon's famous book Oeconomicus Greek: Οἰκονομικός on household matters and husbandry. The French word mesnagement or ménagement influenced the semantic development of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Management according to some definitions has existed for millennia, and several writers have produced background works that have contributed to modern management theories. Some theorists have cited as providing lessons for civilian managers. For example, Chinese general ] when re-phrased in modern terminology being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager's organization and a foe's. The writings of influential ] to embody a rare premodern example of abstract theory of administration.
Various ancient and medieval civilizations produced "mirrors for princes" books, which aimed to advise new monarchs on how to govern. Plato described job specialization in 350 BC, and Alfarabi listed several leadership traits in AD 900. Other examples include the Indian Arthashastra by Chanakya written around 300 BC, and The Prince by Italian author Niccolò Machiavelli c. 1515.
Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations discussed efficient organization of work through division of labour. Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of ]
Classical economists such as Adam Smith 1723–1790 and John Stuart Mill 1806–1873 provided a theoretical background to resource allocation, production economics, and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney 1765–1825, James Watt 1736–1819, and Matthew Boulton 1728–1809 developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production.
Salaried managers as an identifiable group first became prominent in the late 19th century.
By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief. Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's The Principles of Scientific Management 1911, Lillian Gilbreth's Psychology of Management 1914, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study 1917, and Henry L. Gantt's charts 1910s. J. Duncan wrote the first college management-textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became the first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance.
The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree MBA in 1921. People like Henri Fayol 1841–1925 and Alexander Church 1866–1936 described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early-20th century, people like Ordway Tead 1891–1973, Walter Scott 1869–1955 and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management. Other writers, such as Elton Mayo 1880–1949, Mary Parker Follett 1868–1933, Chester Barnard 1886–1961, Max Weber 1864–1920, who saw what he called the "administrator" as bureaucrat, Rensis Likert 1903–1981, and Chris Argyris born 1923 approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.
Peter Drucker 1909–2005 wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation published in 1946. It resulted from Alfred Sloan chairman of General Motors until 1956 commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein.
H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher 1890–1962, and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett worked in the development of the applied-mathematics science of operations research, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" but distinct from Taylor's scientific management, attempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision-problems, and can apply directly to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.
Some of the more recent[update] developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma, the Viable system model, and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group-management theories such as Cog's Ladder.
As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management.
Business management includes the following branches:
In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management.
Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship.
Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business-ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.
As one consequence, ] layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off lower-level workers.
According to leadership-academic Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, a contemporary senior-management team will almost inevitably have some personality disorders.
According to Fayol, management operates through five basic functions: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling.
Nerve centre, disseminator
Entrepreneur, negotiator, allocator
Management skills include: